KNOW ABOUT YOUR KIDNEYS
So the kidneys
are associated with the overwhole functions of the body. Kidneys
are most important organs in human body. They are the major
excretory organs that help to filter blood and to excrete the
OF THE KIDNEYS
is approx lately measured as 12 c.m in length 6 c.m in breadth
and 3 c.m in thickness. It weighs between 120 and 170 gms. Each
kidney is consisted of millions of nephrons which are the actual
functional units. These nephrons may be
divided in to glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of
Henle, distal convoluted
tubule and collecting ducts.
Glomerulus consists of a network of capillaries. It acts as
a ultra filter. It filters about
120 ml filtrate from 1500 ml of blood passing through it every
minute. These filtrate
contains all the dissloved substances in the blood like glucose,
calcium, bicarbonate, phosphate and molecular weight substances
like urea, creatinine, Uric acid, amino acids and so forth.
In the proximal tubule the filtrates and solutes like glucose,
acids, and phosphates are completely reabsorbed.
The descending limp of Henle,. freely permits the movement of
water and urea,
whereas the ascending limp does not permit water. Here water
and sodium are
The distal tubule produces ammonia which helps acidifying urine.
Out of 120 ml of
ultrafiltrate only one ml is excreted as urine. Water, solutes
and other substances necessary metabolism are reabsorbed and
waste products tike urea, creatinine, and uric acid are excreted.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus produces an enzyme called renin
which prevents the loss of sodium and regulates blood pressure.
Kidney’s produces a hormone called erythropoietin which
regulates the production of red blood cells in red bone marrow.
Postaglandins and Kallikreins are the other hormones produced
by the kidneys.