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KNOW ABOUT YOUR KIDNEYS

So the kidneys are associated with the overwhole functions of the body. Kidneys
are most important organs in human body. They are the major excretory organs that help to filter blood and to excrete the waste materials.


SIZE OF THE KIDNEYS
Each kidney is approx lately measured as 12 c.m in length 6 c.m in breadth and 3 c.m in thickness. It weighs between 120 and 170 gms. Each kidney is consisted of millions of nephrons which are the actual functional units. These nephrons may be
divided in to glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted
tubule and collecting ducts.
Glomerulus consists of a network of capillaries. It acts as a ultra filter. It filters about
120 ml filtrate from 1500 ml of blood passing through it every minute. These filtrate
contains all the dissloved substances in the blood like glucose, sodium, pottassiam,
calcium, bicarbonate, phosphate and molecular weight substances like urea, creatinine, Uric acid, amino acids and so forth.
In the proximal tubule the filtrates and solutes like glucose, bicorbonate, amino
acids, and phosphates are completely reabsorbed.
The descending limp of Henle,. freely permits the movement of water and urea,
whereas the ascending limp does not permit water. Here water and sodium are
reabsorbed.
The distal tubule produces ammonia which helps acidifying urine. Out of 120 ml of
ultrafiltrate only one ml is excreted as urine. Water, solutes and other substances necessary metabolism are reabsorbed and waste products tike urea, creatinine, and uric acid are excreted.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus produces an enzyme called renin which prevents the loss of sodium and regulates blood pressure. Kidney’s produces a hormone called erythropoietin which regulates the production of red blood cells in red bone marrow.
Postaglandins and Kallikreins are the other hormones produced by the kidneys.

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Dr. S. AKKBAR KAUSAR
SAKUN MAHAL HOSPITAL
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